NAVSEA Evaluation

EVALUATION OF SELF-APPLIED TOURNIQUETS FOR COMBAT APPLICATIONS,  SECOND PHASE

Results released:  April 2007

Conducted by:  Naval Sea Systems Command- Navy Experimental Diving Unit

This information is a summary of the full report.

Introduction:

Mortality statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom  (OIF) indicate that deaths among U.S. forces are often not immediate but from hemorrhagic shock following the detonation of improvised explosive devices (IED’s).  U.S. troops are currently equipped with Devlar body armor and helmets what have decreased the number of fatalities resulting from penetrating chest wounds and serious head trauma, but the number of deaths attributable to extremity wounds have increased.  Evidence suggests that approximately 7% of these deaths could be prevented with the prompt application of an effective tourniquet General:  Twenty-eight active duty Navy personnel served as test subjects.  Tourniquets were immersed in a blood analog solution and then rolled in sand to simulate desert combat (field) conditions Experimental Design:   Combinations of tourniquets and extremities were tested in a repeated measured design based on the following parameters:  
  1. mechanical and application failures;
  2. 2: application times;
  3. flow versus no-flow, as measured by Doppler stethoscope;
  4. percentage circulatory occlusion; as measured by impedance plethysmography (IPG)
  5. subjective ratings of tourniquets by test subjects
Thirteen (13)  different tourniquets were included in the Evaluation. In this evaluation the RMT was called the ‘Burke’ by DOD distributor.  The Burke was created, designed and produced by m2® inc.  It was generation 5.  The current RMT is generation 24.

GRAPHS:

 
MECHANICAL AND APPLICATION FAILURES
TOURNIQUET FAILURE RATE % GROUP
FST 2 1
MET 2 1
TK-4 2 1
CAT 4 1
MAT 4 1
OHT-2 4 1
Q 4 1
RMT 6 1
NATO 6 1
SOFT-T 6 1
McMill 8 1
TK-3 8 1
TIAM 28 3
APPLICATION TIMES
UPPER EXTREMITY
TOURNIQUET MEAN APPLICATION TIME (sec) GROUP
OHT-2 57.6 1
RMT 59.9 1
MAT 60.7 1
TK-3 70.4 1
Q 72.3 1
TK-4 72.8 1
TIAM 83.9 1
FST 95.1 1
CAT 97.1 1
MET 100.9 2
SOFT-T 129.6 3
NATO 138.9 3
McMill 161.4 3
 
APPLICATION TIMES
LOWER EXTREMITY
TOURNIQUET MEAN APPLICATION TIME (sec) GROUP
OHT-2 41.8 1
MAT 46.6 1
RMT 48.8 1
Q 53.7 1
MET 54.1 1
TK-3 54.2 1
SOFT-T 56.3 1
CAT 57.9 1
FST 60.7 1
TK-4 65.3 1
NATO 71.4 2
TIAX 75 2
McMill 89.9 3
 
DOPPLER FLOW MEASUREMENTS
UPPER EXTREMITY
TOURNIQUET % NO FLOW GROUP
TIAX 100 1
CAT 92 1
MAT 92 1
RMT 91.67 1
TK-3 87.5 1
MET 84 1
TK-4 80 1
FST 72 1
Q 69.57 1
SOFT-T 68.18 1
OHT-2 58.33 1
McMill 27.27 3
NATO 21.74 3
DOPPLER FLOW MEASUREMENTS
LOWER EXTREMITY
TOURNIQUET % NO FLOW GROUP
CAT 73.91 1
RMT 69.57 1
MAT 69.57 1
TIAX 65 1
Q 56 1
TK-4 54.17 1
TK-3 50 1
SOFT-T 48 1
MET 33.33 1
FST 25 1
McMill 25 1
NATO 8.33 2
OHT-2 0 3
 
SUBJECTIVE RATINGS
TOURNIQUET TOTAL SCORE GROUP
MAT 289 1
RMT 229 1
TK-3 225 1
TK-4 210 1
CAT 208 2
TIAX 198 2
Q 196 2
MET 172 2
OHT 133 2
McMill 125 2
SOFT-T 122 3
FST 114 3
NATO 54 3
 
TOTAL POINTS RANKING BASED ON GROUP ASSIGNMENTS
TOURNIQUET GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 TOTAL POINTS FINAL GROUP
RMT 8 0 0 24 A
MAT 8 0 0 24 A
TK-3 8 0 0 24 A
TK-4 8 0 0 24 A
CAT 7 1 0 23 B
Q 7 1 0 23 B
MET 6 2 0 22 B
FST 7 0 1 22 C
SOFT-T 6 0 2 20 C
TIAX 5 2 1 20 C
OHT-2 5 2 1 20 C
McMill 2 2 4 14 C
NATO 1 3 4 13 C
 

CONCLUSIONS:

Each of the thirteen tourniquets was subjected to 50 trials and evaluated on the above parameters. Using the artificial construct designed for this study and weighing all parameters equally the RMT (Burke), MAT, TK-3, and TK-4 performed equally with scores of 24 out of 24 points possible.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

From the data obtained and analyzed in this study, it is recommended that one of the tourniquets that achieved a Group A rating (statistically equal to or better than all other tourniquets in every parameter tested) be highly favored in selection for forward deployment.

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m2® is an engineering and production firm specializing in “m2″ ratchet buckles and ladder strap technologies. m2® products are used in adaptive sport, orthotics, prosthetics, and life saving medical care. 25 years experience and lifetime product guarantee; establishes m2® as a world leader in ratchet buckle and ladder strap technologies. Learn more about m2® Inc...

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